Luxembourg is one of the most beautiful countries of Europe, which surrounded by countries like Belgium, Germany and France. Three languages are recognised as official language of this small nation. They are French, German and Luxemburgish, and Portugese. This country is quite small and segmented into 3 districts, 12 cantons and 118 communes.
History of Luxembourg goes back to the days when the castle of Luxembourg was built. Slowly but surely a town developed surrounding the castle. Throughout its history, Luxembourg was considered as a very important nation due to its geographic position.
Luxembourg is one of the founding members of the European Union and enjoys the fruit of open market economy. This is well reflected in the GDP per capita of Luxembourg, which is $77,595 as of 2005. In recent times, Luxembourg has experienced a rapid growth in the financial sector and now the economy is much more stable. Beside steel, which was previously the major industry, the chemical industry is also reflecting a gradual development.
Luxembourg is a landlocked country bordered by Belgium, Germany and France. The three rivers, the Moselle, the Sauer and Our, encompass the Eastern part of Luxembourg.
Counted among the smallest nations of the world, it is ranked 167th among all the nations, which is decided according to size. Hills and low mountains can be found in plenty in the northern part of the country. Buurgplaatz is the highest point at 559 m. Other areas of the country are also relatively hilly.
Through out the year Luxembourg enjoys a moderate climate, which is neither too cold nor too hot. The sea, which is about 200 miles away, does not cast much of an influence on the weather, and maritime winds (S-E and N-E) shed a good amount of their humidity before arriving at Luxembourg’s borders. Visitors usually prefer the period from May to mid-October. While July and August are the warmest months, this tiny nation experiences an “Indian Summer” in September and October. For the turn-of-year celebrations, the weather is often dry and cold, and sometimes it is accompanied by snowfall.
View of Luxembourg City
The founder of the Luxembourg Dynasty, Siegfried, Count of the Ardennes, had built a castle in middle of 10th century. This Lucilinburhuc Castle became the genesis in the history of Luxembourg. This castle was later come to be named as Gibraltar of the North. The fortress with its rich heritage has enabled the city of Luxembourg to be listed under the UNESCO’s World Heritage site. With the passage of time a town grew up and flourished with the growth of population.
Though Luxembourg got its independence in the early 19th century, but before that the country’s history is marked by struggle and crisis. Here the Vienna Congress (1815) deserves a special mention. The Congress of Vienna officially handed out the sovereignty to the country. Thus the Treaty of London was passed on May 11th, 1867, that stated that Luxembourg would remain forever unbiased.
After the independence Luxembourg witnessed a number of successors to its thrown. However, the country had to do away with its neutral stand at the time of the two World Wars. German captured the country twice during these two wars. Soon after the end of the war Luxembourg played a vital role in foundation of the European Economic Community that later transformed to European Union. Luxembourg was the first to host European Institutions in 1953. Moreover, many European Companies and Institutions have their bureaus in Luxembourg
Striving ahead with secured economic conditions, Luxembourg has the highest GDP per capita in the world. With the passing of time the country has shown less increase in prices along with increment of jobs and balanced development. From producing steel to the manufacturing of various types of chemicals and other expanded products, Luxembourg have come a long way were financial growth is concerned. The country now boasts to have financial and trade relations with Netherlands and Belgium. Rapid growth in the financial sectors along with other forces has decreased the level unemployment in the country as well. Tourism Industry is now one of the most flourishing institutions that are enhancing the economy of Luxembourg in a drastic way.
Though Luxembourg has a parliamentary form of government, it is conducted by a constitutional monarchy by inheritance. The executive powers in Luxembourg rest in the hand of The Grand Duke of Luxembourg. He possesses the power to dissolve parliament and form a new one.
The Prime Minister heads the cabinet. He along with other members of the cabinet runs different departments of the government under the Duke.
Legislative power is in the Chamber of Deputies, directly chosen to 5-year terms. A second body, the "Conseil d'État" or the Council of State, comprises of 21 ordinary citizens, elected by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.
The judiciary of Luxembourg is divided into several categories of courts. The Grand Duchy comprises of three lower tribunals. They are known as Justices de Paix and situated in Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg and Diekirch. The two district tribunals are located inLuxembourg and Diekirch. The Superior Court of Justice at Luxembourg includes the Court of Appeal and the Court of Cassation. There is also one administrative tribunal, one Administrative Court and Constitutional Court as well to supplement the judicial system in Luxembourg.