Nigeria is fast recovering from its politically disturbed past and repositioned itself as Africa’s most promising cultural tourism destination. Snuggling up between sun-kissed seashores in the south and Saharan arid lands in the north, Nigeria is a paradise for the nature lovers. The beauty and particularity of this West African country attracts travellers all over the world. From exciting water sports in the Niger River and Gulf of Guinea, exploring wild life in exotic rainforests to expeditions in vast tracts of unspoilt nature, Nigeria is bubbling with opportunities. The illustrative native arts, lifestyle and the friendly attitude of the ethnic Nigerian population make your stay further memorable. Nigeria shares it political borders with the Republic of Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, Niger in the north and is drenched by the Gulf of Guinea in the south. Abuja is the capital of the nation and Lagos is the largest city. Ibadan, Osogbo, Calabar, Warri, Port Harcourt, Enugu, Kano, Kaduna, Onitsha, Jos, Ilorin, Maiduguri,Kanago Bauchi, Sokoto and Benin City are other significant urban addresses of the country. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa.
The geography of Nigeria takes a transitional journey from south to north. Forests, woodlands, swamps and mangrove forests border the southern coastal areas that are wet and humid compared to other parts of the country. In the central part of Nigeria, the terrain becomes less lush and the vegetation takes in the savanna features. Further north, the land becomes barren and is an extension of the Sahara Desert from the borders of neighbouring Niger. Benue and Niger are the two major rivers of the country that flow into the Nigerian terrain from northwest and north-east respectively and meet each other in the central part. From here on together they flow down south and create the great Niger Delta at its confluence with the Gulf of Guinea.
Nigeria has an eventful history in its store that started thousands of years ago with Nok people who produced sophisticated terra cotta and iron sculpture. Then the days of the Hausa kingdoms, Kanem-Bornu Empire, Yoruba kingdoms and the Kingdom of Benin when Nigeria developed a disciplined political and military set up, came. The Arabs arrived around 13th century and Islam was introduced. The Fulani Empire ruled the region from the beginning of the nineteenth century until the British established their authority over the Nigerian coasts through the Royal Niger Company. Nigeria became a British protectorate on January 1, 1901 and formally became the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria gained independence. It became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and joined the United Nations. From then Nigeria suffered a series of coup attempts, military rule and overthrowing of government. Finally, a new constitution was adopted in 1999 and civilian government was established.
Nigeria today is a federal republic comprising of 36 states. A president, who is popularly elected for a four-year term, heads the executive branch. He is assisted by a cabinet. The bicameral National Assembly holds the legislative powers and consists of Senate and House of Representatives. The 109 members of Senate and the 346 from the House of Representatives are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms.
The economy of Nigeria is trying to improve on the basis of the capital-intensive oil sector, the subsistence agriculture division and market-oriented reforms. However it is still plagued with political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure and poor macroeconomic management.