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TURKEY
 
   
   
 

Turkey Identity Card



 
Country name:
~ conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
~ conventional short form: Turkey
~ local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
~ local short form: Turkiye
Area: 780,580 sq km
Coastline: 7,200 km
Highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Population: 69,660,559
Density: 89/km2
Population growth rate: 1.09%
Official Language: Turkish
Religions: Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2%
Government type: republican parliamentary democracy
Capital: Ankara
GDP - per capita: $7,400
Inflation rate: 9.3%
Currency (code): New Turkish lira (YTL)
Vehicle Country Id-Code: TR
ISO CODE Alpha2: TR
ISO CODE Alpha3: TUR
ISO NUMERIC CODE: 792
Calling code: +90
Internet country code: .tr
Time Zone: + 2.0 H

 

 
 
 
 

Turkey, the land of thirteen successive civilizations is a perfect blend of the past and the present. Combining the eccentricity of geographical terrains and the richness of cultural trends, Turkey is a land of nostalgia as well as modernity. Strategically located at the junction of Asia and Europe, Turkey has always been an integral part of HISTORY. Emerging from its magnificent past, the country has left no stones unturned to get into a comfort zone in terms of commercial activities and tourist attractions.
One point of distinction that marks Turkey is the borders it shares. Several countries and seas shroud this country form various directions. In short, the blues of the Mediterranean Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Black Sea and also the greenery of Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq and Syria surround Turkey. Certain regions of Anatolia are featured with exuberant mountains, lakes and rivers. Although Ankara is the capital city still it is Istanbul that claims the maximum attention when it comes to the Turkish cities in addition to its size and the status of a port city. Other important and prominent destinations are Adana, Izmir and Konya.
As soon as Turkey achieved the status of an independent Republic under the able guidance and tutelage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, it started its voyage towards progressive development characterized by open policies. Although this country is still not considered to be one of the most successful countries, economy wise, but still the endeavour to use its resources for a brighter future is on. Globally acclaimed for its hospitality, cuisines to die for, calm and quite coastlines and royal mosques and castles, Turkey still remains one of the best Mediterranean destinations.


The Bosphorus Bridge, Istanbul

Geography

Turkey is situated at the crossroads of continents. However, on the atlas, this country is found to be comfortably located in the northern hemisphere between the equator and the North Pole. The country terrain is also in clash with default region above the earth surface. Due to such adverse geographical conditions, Turkey experiences tremors from earthquakes at frequent intervals. Located at a longitude of 36 degrees N to 42 degrees N and latitude of 26 degrees E to 45 degrees E, a few marks of a Turkish land are its mountains, central plateau with a narrow stretch of coastal plain.
Turkey has three seas, two European nations and six Asian countries for neighbours along its borders. The Black Sea lies in the north, the Mediterranean in the south and the Aegean Sea in the west of Turkey. In the internal regions of the country, the Sea of Marmara is situated between the straits of the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus. Considered as straits of much importance, these are the two waterways that act as a connecting chord between the Black Sea and the remaining part of the world. The land borders of Turkey is distributed between Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan on the northeast, Iran to the east, and Iraq and Syria to the south. Occupying a total area of 814,578 square kilometres this country resembles a rectangle, not much carefully drawn. As Turkey is geographically torn apart between the continents, the area of 790,200 square kilometres lie in Asia and 24,378 are located in Europe. The Asian part of Turkey’s Anatolian region is also famous as Asia Minor worldwide.


View of Alanya

The vast landscape of Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions according to the features. This division comprises of the Black Sea region, the Marmara region, the Aegean, the Mediterranean, Central Anatolia, the East and Southeast Anatolia regions. The northern Black sea region covers approximately 1/6th of Turkey's total land area. The Marmara region is situated on the eastern part of Turkey and most of the Turkish population resides in this region. The Anatolian plain is the most fertile region that is suitable for agriculture. In general, the mountains of Turkey run perpendicularly into the sea cutting across the plains that are spread from east to west. The peak of Uludag (2,543 metres) and Mount Ararat at 5,166 m are among the highest mountain points in Turkey. Most of the rivers of Turkey flow into the seas surrounding the country. The Euphrates and Tigris join together in Iraq and end their journey at the Persian Gulf. The Kizilirmak, Yesilirmak and Sakarya are Turkey’s other important rivers that flow into the Black Sea. Turkey's largest Lake Van (3.713 square kilometres), and the lakes of Ercek, Cildir and Hazar are situated in the Eastern Anatolian region. Overall, Turkey is a treasure chest of coves, inlets, bays, caves and caverns, thermal springs and rich natural resources.
The climatic conditions of Turkey are as diverse as its landscape. The plains, coastal regions and mountainous territories experience separate weather patterns. The coastal areas are sheltered by a moderate climate but the inland Anatolian plateau boast of extremes with hot summers and cold winters with limited rainfall. From April to October, which is in time of spring and autumn, most places in Turkey have an ideal climate. It is perfect to relax on sandy beaches or enjoy the tranquility of mountains and lakes. The Black Sea coast is best visited between April and September as this part of the year is featured by mild rain. Excepting Istanbul, Turkey doesn't really have an ideal winter season for tourism.


Antalya Waterfall

History

Situated on the straddling point of Asia and Europe, Turkey has been the breeding ground of several civilisations and heart of dynasties. The ancient ancestors of turkey include Hittites, Phrygians and Lydians. They were followed by the Persians and the Greeks who ruled the region for decades and centuries. After this, the country when the Roman emperor Constantine shifted his capital to Byzantium, Turkey was brought under the rule of the roman dynasty. The later half of eleventh century is considered to be the beginning of the Turks and that of Islam Anatolia. Following the year of 1071, the Turks, led by the famous Osmani, fully conquered the whole of Anatolia and established the Anatolian Seljuk state or better known as the Ottoman empire. The Seljuks contributed immensely in the field of medical sciences and were the first to establish educational institutions in Turkey. The country was flooded with intellectuals, administrators, artistes and the traders from Iran, who embedded a deep Persian influence in Turkish culture.
Under the Empire, the dynasty expanded immensely including parts of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Europe. The Ottomans conquered Egypt, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Armenia and Qatar. The aggression continued on several European countries including Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Romania and Greece. The Ottoman Empire saw the brightest period during the reign of Sultan Suleyman (1520-1555). It continued to acquire territory until the middle of the 17th century. But in 1683, it suffered its first major defeat in the hands of the King of Poland, John III (Jan Sobieski) in the siege of Vienna.
The next centuries witnessed a series of wars, subsequent occupations, and defeats followed by loss of territories. During the dreaded days of the World War, the Ottomans allied with Germany and Austria-Hungary. But at the end of it, the Ottoman territory was greatly reduced. It was compelled to sign the Mudrow Armistice on October 30, 1918 and the Greeks occupied the region of Yzmir in 1919. This sparked a nation wide resistance movement and emergence of one of world’s greatest leaders, Mustafa Kemal. He turned protestors into an organised army and the movement became a full-scale war of independence. With the Treaty of Lausanne, in 1923, Turkey was established as an independent republic with a National assembly. Kemal, who become the republic's first President, was granted the name of Atatürk (meaning father of Turks).


Library of Celsus in Ephesus

Economy

Turkey, after its independence, broke away from the shackles of imperialism and the damages of wars. The economy took a nosedive during the World wars but evolved rapidly with progressive policies. Though the financial system has tried to accommodate a fair enough share for the industrial and commercial sector, it still leans heavily on the agriculture. On 1998, Turkey became the world's largest producer of hard-shell nuts, fig and apricot, the fourth STET in the production fresh vegetables, grape and tobacco. Not just this, the country also holds the seventh position in wheat and cotton production. Turkish delight and helva are famous throughout the world.
Istanbul emerged as leader in the world of textiles and ready-to-wear clothing production. The exports of this sector constitute 37 percent of total industrial exports. The leather processing industry has also developed highly in technological level and production capacity. It contributes a healthy share in terms of export figures of Turkey. The famous finest pure silk carpets of the world are produced in the small town of Hereke of Turkey.
Unemployment remains a stigma on the economical façade of Turkey. While 40 percent of the population is employed in the agricultural sector, the service sector accommodates nearly the same amount. The government has pumped in investments to eradicate this problem and fight high rate of inflation. Extensive privatisation measures have also been undertaken, but the state maintains its domination over fundamental services and industries. Funds from IMF and the European countries flow in to help the economy revive out of this situation.


Aya Sofia, Istanbul

Politics

Governed by the “Rule of the law”, Turkey is a democratic, secular and social state of esteem. It developed around the nationalism of Atatürk and is governed by the principle of the separation of powers. The segregation of powers, limitation of authorities and access to various rights is well described in the Turkish constitution, known as the Anayasa'.
In Turkey, the National Assembly is the epitome of power and authority. It comprises of 550 members who are elected by a Turkish population above the age of 18 years. Their term spans for five years and together they elect the President of the country. They form the legislative section. The President is considered to be the chief of state and does not need to be a parliamentarian. The executive power evolves around the President, the prime minister and his cabinet members. The president appoints the prime minister, the representative of the majority party of Assembly. He leads the cabinet and nominates the cabinet member candidates.
The judiciary of the country is immune to any interference from other beholders of authority and functions independently. The judicial system is highly organised with several small courts under a higher one and here, the judge’s decision is considered final and must be followed both by the public and government. But they remain answerable to the public for any out-of-the-way occurrences.
In terms of foreign relations, the country remains in loggerheads with Greece with its “Turkish part of Cyprus”. Last but not the least Turkey is also a proud member state of the United Nations and NATO.


Mosque in Adana
 



 

 

 
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