Uzbekistan is a beautiful and remote land that is a haven for mountaineers, hikers and the independent travellers who are in search of remote locations and unusual cultural experiences. There are opportunities for steep mountaineering, rock climbing, hiking, horse or camel riding, historical exploration, cultural experiences or simply relaxing among dramatic landscapes of this Central Asian country. The populated valley of Uzbekistan has a rich past that traces back to II millennium BC when nomadic Turkic tribes inhabited the regions. After being converted to Islam by invading Arab forces, it faced reigns of the Mongols and Seljuk Turks in the 11th century. Later became part of Tamerlane the Great's empire and subsequently was divided into the khanates of Khiva, Bukhara, and Kokand. The Russian forces conquered Uzbekistan in the mid-19th century and independent Uzbekistan Soviet Socialist Republic was established in 1925. Uzbekistan declared complete political freedom from USSR on August 31, 1991.
Spread over an area of 447,000 square kilometres, the terrain of Uzbekistan is flourished by the banks of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Rivers, the coastal areas of Aral Sea and the slopes of the Tien Shan Mountains. This nation also enjoys the rare distinction of being a double-landlocked country, as it has no opening and connectivity to water bodies, neither do its neighbouring countries.